Homegrown Statelessness in Malaysia
The Administratively Stateless and the Promise of the Principle of Genuine and Effective Links
Who is stateless and when is a state obligated to confer nationality under international law? Using the case study of Malaysia, this paper sheds light on who are stateless and gives weight to the international customary ‘doctrine of dominant and effective nationality’ as a factor to consider when conferring citizenship on stateless persons in Malaysia. Six categories of stateless persons were identified in this research project. This article posits that five of the six categories of stateless persons can be said to have ‘genuine and effective links’ to Malaysia suggesting that not all stateless persons are foreigners or migrants. The research project suggests that in examining who are stateless, different pathways of citizenship should be conceived for them.